Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Japanese Verb Chart

This chart lists the possible ways to conjugate verbs. Base 3 is the form that verbs are in when you read them in the dictionary. The Example column is the dictionary form of the verbs. You will notice that it is the same as the Base 3 column. For all normal verbs, the last syllable in Base 3 determines how it will be conjugated. Verbs that end in eru or iru have their own special category, along with the verbs kuru and suru. Just below the chart I have some verbs listed that end in eru or iru, but go in the normal category.

If you are a beginner learning Japanese, then most of the verb examples you will see will probably be in the "masu" form. To put a verb in the masu form, use Base 2 and add masu to the end of the conjugation. The masu form of verbs is almost always taught first to people learning Japanese, because it can be used in almost any situation and not be considered rude. The way you form and end your verbs determines the level of speech and how polite you are. It takes a while to get down when it is ok to say what. That is why you should learn the masu forms first.

Note that I am using aa, ii, uu, ee, oo for the long vowels. This has the same meaning as when a line is put over the vowel.

Category Example Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Base 4 Base 5 te-form ta-form
normal kau
kaku
hanasu
matsu
shinu
isogu
yobu
yomu
toru
ka-wa
ka-ka
hana-sa
ma-ta
shi-na
iso-ga
yo-ba
yo-ma
to-ra
ka-i
ka-ki
hana-shi
ma-chi
shi-ni
iso-gi
yo-bi
yo-mi
to-ri
ka-u
ka-ku
hana-su
ma-tsu
shi-nu
iso-gu
yo-bu
yo-mu
to-ru
ka-e
ka-ke
hana-se
ma-te
shi-ne
iso-ge
yo-be
yo-me
to-re
ka-oo
ka-koo
hana-soo
ma-too
shi-noo
iso-goo
yo-boo
yo-moo
to-roo
ka-tte
ka-ite
hana-shite
ma-tte
shi-nde
iso-ide
yo-nde
yo-nde
to-tte
ka-tta
ka-ita
hana-shita
ma-tta
shi-nda
iso-ida
yo-nda
yo-nda
to-tta
eru/iru
ending
taberu
miru
tab-e
m-i
tab-e
m-i
tab-eru
m-iru
tab-ere
m-ire
tab-eyoo
m-iyoo
tab-ete
m-ite
tab-eta
m-ita
special kuru
suru
ko-
shi-
ki-
shi-
kuru
suru
kure-
sure-
koyoo
shiyoo
kite
shite
kita
shita

The following verbs end in eru or iru, but are conjugated like normal verbs.


Base 1
There are three main uses for Base 1

The Plain Negative Form (Examples)

The Passive Case (Examples)

The Causitive Case - make to do (Examples)


Base 2
Besides the masu verb ending, there are several uses for Base 2.
The conjugation is the same for all three categories.

The masu verb ending (Examples)

Misc. verb endings for Base 2 (Examples)


Base 3
The conjugation is the same for all three categories.


Base 4
There are two main uses for Base 4

The If Form (Examples)

The Can Form (Examples)
NOTE: with can, use ga after the object (instead of o)


Base 5
The conjugation is the same for all three categories.


The Te-Form
There are several uses for the te-form.
The conjugation is the same for all three categories.


The Ta-Form
The main use for the ta-form is the plain past tense.
The conjugation is the same for all three categories.


Return to Main Page

Nedstat Counter